Muhammad Khwarizmi was a Persian Mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, geographer, and historian in the 8th and 9th centuries.

Khwarizmi’s work on arithmetic was responsible for introducing a set of 10 symbols—1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0. In “The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing” Khwarizmi introduced the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations through the use of algorithms. He treated algebra as an independent discipline and introduced the methods of “reduction” and “balancing”, the current method of solving equations through the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation. Khwarizmi’s work in the origination Algebra earned him the moniker “Father of Algebra”.

Khwarizmi also made important contributions to trigonometry, producing accurate sine and cosine tables and the first table of tangents. A related treatise on spherical trigonometry is also attributed to Khwarizmi.

Khwarizmi was also a pioneer in the field of astronomy, developing the first quadrant for determining the time by observing the sun or stars. He compiled a set of astronomical tables used to calculate the positions of the sun, moon and planets, and when eclipses would happen which led to advances in the construction of the Sundial.

Khwarizimi’s studies in geography expanded upon the work of earlier academics by developing longitudinal and latitudinal lists covering the location of cities, seas, mountains, islands and rivers in approximately 2400 places throughout the world. Very significantly, his contributions in geography led to the construction of a world map and the most accurate measure of of the Earths circumference to date.

Khwarizimi was appointed as the astronomer and head of the House of Wisdom in the city of Baghdad around 820 CE.